Funaria life cycle Class 11 Biology. Back to categories. Occurrence l The genus Funaria comprises species. In India, it is represented by 15 species. The following diagram gives one example of a bryophyte life cycle, that of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. click to enlarge ยท Print this diagram as. Funaria hygrometrica – life cycle. Gametophyte. Spores. Protonema. Sporophytes . See. SEP. A recently germinated spore with a rudimentary protonema. spore.

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Rhizoidal branches function as anchoring and absorbing organs while chloronemal branches develop minute green buds behind the cross walls which develop into leafy gametophores. It cuts off three lateral segments and one basal segment.

The dispersal of spores is due to hygroscopic movements viz. Each germ tube is multicellular, green with oblique septa. It is positive phototropic but never produce buds. Funaria undulata Hampe Broth. About project SlidePlayer Terms of Service.

Calyptrais haploid because it develop from venter wall. Each ring of peristome possesses 16 teeth. Epibasal apical cell develops into capsule and upper portion of the seta while the hypo basal apical cell develops into foot and remaining part of the seta.

According to this most recent insight, the following groups are distinguished: The inner peristomial teeth endostome do not show any hygroscopic movements but act as a sieve allowing only a few spores to disperse at a time. Depth is visible with red-green glasses, preferably with red right. The growth of the axis is due to the activity of a pyramidal apical cell.


It is cm in height and branched. The axial cell divides, transversely to form an outer primary cover cell and inner central cell Fig. The outgrowth of the seta makes that the sporangium extends above the other parts of the plantlet, being exposed to the wind.

Life Cycle of Funaria: Sexual and Vegetative Life Cycle

The outermost layer is thick walled and called epidermis. When protonema is developed by other than the germination of spore, it is called secondary protonema. Water is essential for fertilization.

It is covered by a cap like structure called calyptra. It forms velvety tufts on moist ground, rocks, tree trunks, under shade etc. Each mature antheridium has a short talk and a dub-shaped jacketed body. Root like structures called rhizoids are present. Female branch develops as a lateral outgrowth from the base of the male branch and bears archegonia.

Younger part of the cortex contains chloroplasts but in the older part they are lacking. Androcytes ooze out in the form of a viscous fluid through this pore. After syngamy zygote develop into embryo holoblastic and exoscopic on gametophyte. Similarly, the hypo basal cell differentiates an apical cell Fig.

Later the calyptra ruptures and remains like a cap on the capsule.

The uptake of water and nutrients can occur over the entire thallus. Each spore is spherical Fig.

Life Cycle of Funaria (With Diagram) | Bryopsida

The life cycles of all mosses Liverworts, Hornworts and Bryophytes are in principle similar. The fertilization requires the presence of water drops so that antherozoa, the male motile gametes, can reach the ovuli with help of their flagella, tunaria fertilization can take place.


The lower cells form the lower part of the stalk of the antheridium. Funaria apophysata Funaria hygrometrica. The second division is periclinal Fig. They reproduce by spore formation.

Each androcyte mother cell divides further and form two androcytes. Within the capsule, spore-producing cells undergo meiosis to form haploid spores. It is made up of compactly arranged colourless parenchymatous cells. In Funaria, funariia alternation of generations is not always obligatory.

From these structures one or more new thalli can grow, closing the circle. Funaria rhizophylla Sakurai Sakurai Funaria rhomboidea J. Chloronemal branches produce several buds, each of which develop into a leafy gametophore. It can be studied under the following three headings Fig. The antheridia are intermingled with large number of sterile hair like club shaped structures called paraphyses Sing, paraphysis Fig. When archegonium reaches at maturity, the neck canal cells funafia venter canal cell disintegrate to form a mucilaginous mass.

It is attached below to the edge of the diaphragm. The amphithecium divides by dycle division to form two concentric layers. The mucilage swells up and opens the tip to create a passage up to egg.