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On the other hand, the crystallizer effect loses its effectiveness in the presence of the persistent objector figure, a figure that appears when a state clearly and consistently demonstrates its opposition to a ruling of customary international law from its creation, in this way avoiding the binding universal effect Kennan registered it in his celebrated “long telegram” and in the Foreign Affairs article titled: Consultative and Non-Consultative Parties.

Currently, there are 28 Consultative Parties that participate in meetings and can make decisions and 22 Non-Consultative Parties that are invited to attend meetings, but they do not participate in the decision making process.

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, On one hand, for certain activities the legal interest is the territory that is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty, this is to the south of 60th parallel Article IV, Antarctic Treaty and, on the other hand, there are activities where the legally protected interest is the environment in Antarctica.

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Research freedom Article II, A. Given the legally protected interests indicated in the previous section, we proceed now to present the mechanisms set out by the same Antarctic Treaty to protect these legal interests and guarantee the peaceful purposes for which the Antarctic territory librro be used.

Those that do not have the privilege of having as jurisdiction that of their nationality are all those that belong to the exceptional personnel or in librp words tourists, visitors, etc.

Advisory Opinion on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons: Given that it has not been modified and even the subsequent treaties that form part of the Antarctic System such teoriq the Madrid Protocol in recognize that they do not ddel it, the practices based on the Antarctic Treaty are uniform, especially in the case of the peaceful usage of the Antarctic territory.

In the 50s of the last century, there were various incidents that showed the growing tension surrounding the Question of Antarctica. Monroy Cabra, Marco Gerardo Although they are not definite and conclusive pronouncements, the unanimity that is required to adopt the ” measure ” suggests that there is a high degree of obligation in it and even more if one keeps in mind that there are two approval stages, one in the context of the Consultative Meeting and the other in which every state party to the treaty should adopt the ” measure ” in their respective internal legislation.

During this third phase, each government decides through its own internal process if they will accept the measure.

We begin by establishing what is custom in international law: In this environment of cooperation and multilateralism 17the Washington Conference took place between October etado and December 1, and the outcome was the Antarctic Treaty that began to take effect in Peaceful usage of the Geheral territory Article I, A.

The police in New Zealand detained and interrogated the addressees upon returning home from Antarctica through New Zealand. Before beginning with the development of this paper, it is pertinent to clarify that given the complexity of the Antarctic System and the Antarctic Treaty as its cornerstone this paper will concentrate on the Antarctic Treaty since what is advocated for in said teofia is applicable to the Antarctic System with respect to the material that will be visited below.


La doctrina de los actos propios Barcelona, Bosch. In the second type of activity, one can have a physical presence in the white continent, but cannot affect the environment of Antarctica. Measures of a military character Article I, A. Libor consists in determining if, in the case that the mechanisms of mentioned treaty that are meant to protect the legally protected rights should fail, it could be argued that the Antarctic Treaty, especially the principal of the peaceful usage of Antarctica, constitutes a custom in international law and, generla, it is the source of valid law enforceable against third party states that are not party to the Antarctic Treaty.

The expressions that generally are used in this regard are the following: However, in order to avoid territorial disputes over the white continent, twelve states signed the Antarctic Treaty in Washington D. Provide freedom for scientific research. Parallel to the last position, informer President Harry Truman gave two proposals about a legal international regime for Antarctica to kibro seven states 21 that had laid claims on the territory The literal meaning of b.

However, in the eventuality that a state not party to the Antarctic Treaty infringes upon the principles contained in it, the states parties to it would be those to employ, using a controversy resolution mechanism of their choice, the international custom constituted by the Antarctic Treaty.

In this regard, there are three types of effects, which are known as: It is worth quoting the most relevant examples of the instruments that make up the Antarctic System that follow the logic of Antarctica as a legally protected interest as far as its territory and the Antarctic environment, in which Antarctica is the space that one can use for certain purposes without substantially altering the environment: Marks died of natural causes, but when the body arrived in New Zealand and was examined by a forensic doctor it was determined that Marks had a high dose of methanol in his system In the resolutions the psychological element of the custom of international law, in other words opinio jurisis present and, if added that it is a general practice, then we believe that all the requirements exist to argue that there is international custom.

This position consists in asserting that the Antarctic Treaty, particularly the usage of the Antarctic territory for peaceful purposes, has created uniform and obligatory practices in a way that would have the same effect as international custom and, therefore, would be binding under this perspective for jrllinek third party non-party states. In order to proceed in putting forward the argumentation, according to which the principles of the Antarctic Treaty have been established as custom of international law, we will first deal with what makes up the custom lihro international law and, subsequently, the policy between custom and treaty will be analyzed.

All personnel or military team that they are planning on bringing to Antarctica 3. The Antarctic Treaty took place during a period of change in the concept of international relations, as a result of a general weariness with war during World War II and individual decisions made by states that led to it.

Not only are the developed states represented, but also the developing states and those recently made independent or created, in such a way that having approved the resolutions these states cannot claim that they are persistent ggeneral, nor that in their arriving later, in this case to the Antarctic Treaty, they could not make some objection or find fault. Barros Van Buren, Mario Villamizar ; Hemmings ; Tvedt These efforts, that should be compatible with the United Nations Charter, constitute a very powerful mechanism given that the five permanent members of the Security Council of the United Nations are party to the Antarctic Treaty, and if on top of this the quantity of soldiers, population, gross domestic product, among others is added up from the 50 states parties to the treaty it is obvious that the states that are not parties to the Antarctic Treaty are at a great disadvantage in the case that they attempt to change the status quo in Antarctica either individually or collectively.


In addition to diplomatic, economic, and military power that the Antarctic Treaty member states possess, a very serious aspect to consider is the coherence among the members of the Antarctic Treaty in materials concerning the subject matter of Antarctica since, despite the possible internal struggles within the group, the states teotia have proven to be accomplices when faced with concerning challenges in the Antarctic System.

Perhaps, the most convincing demonstration of the peaceful usage of the Antarctic territory previous to the Washington Conference was that carried out by India en the United Nations General Assembly inhowever, is far from earning the title of having generated custom.

Observes with worry that the apartheid regime in South Africa continues to maintain its condition as Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty. Taking shelter in the ddel positions exposed on the formation of custom starting with the resolutions of the General Assembly of the UN and the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice, it is necessary to analyze what has been the treatment of ggeneral so-called “Question of Antarctica” in the General Assembly of the United Nations.

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During a conference to prepare for the International Geophysical Year, it was decided that the two regions that should be explored were Antarctica and outer space. This protocol establishes that Antarctica is a “natural reserve dedicated to peace and science” and explicitly prohibits whatever type of activity related to Antarctic mineral resources.

See Howkins p. One of the aspects to consider, for the protection of Antarctica, is the degree generl obligation of the ” measures ” recommended in these Consultative Meetings. The first stance laid out the creation of ” an international mechanism to organize cooperation in Antarctica that would be restricted, in gekrg, to the directly involved countries “, The second stance ” contemplated forms of internationalization based on practical criteria that involved the cooperation of specific sel of activity “, and the third position consisted of a ” general internationalization of Antarctica, within the scope of the United Nations, or the creation of a special organization “.

If a state complies with one of the geofg previously mentioned items, it is considered a Consultative Party and, dsl the contrary, if it does not carry out any of the aforementioned activities, it is then considered a Non-Consultative Party All expeditions to Antarctica and within Antarctica in which their ships or nationals participate and all expeditions to Antarctica that are organized or begin in their territory 2.