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Purification and functional characterisation of rhiminopeptidase A, a novel aminopeptidase from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Snake bite is a major neglected public health issue within poor communities living in the rural togej of several countries throughout the world. In order to develop cheaper and more effective therapeutics, the toxic components of snake venom and their modes bujam action need to be clearly understood.

One particularly poorly understood component of snake venom is aminopeptidases. These are exo-metalloproteases, which, in mammals, are involved in important physiological functions such as the maintenance of blood pressure and brain function. Although aminopeptidase activities have been reported in some snake venoms, no detailed analysis of any individual snake venom aminopeptidases has been performed so far.

As is the case for mammals, snake venom aminopeptidases may also play important roles in altering the physiological functions of victims hujxm envenomation. In order to further understand this important group of snake venom enzymes we have isolated, functionally characterised and analysed the sequence-structure relationships of an aminopeptidase from the venom of the large, highly venomous West African gaboon viper, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

Tirej venom of B.

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In the absence of calcium, this purified protein had broad aminopeptidase activities against acidic, basic and neutral amino acids but in the presence of huajm, it had only acidic aminopeptidase activity APA. Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros.

The West African Gaboon viper Bitis rhinoceros is a master of camouflage due to its colouration pattern. Its skin is geometrically patterned and features black spots that purport an exceptional spatial depth due to their velvety surface texture. Our study shades light on micromorphology, optical characteristics and principles behind such a velvet black appearance. We revealed a unique hierarchical pattern of leaf-like microstructures striated with nanoridges on the snake scales that coincides with the distribution of black colouration.

Velvet black sites demonstrate four times lower reflectance and higher absorbance than other scales in the UV – near IR spectral range. A view-angle independent black structural colour in snakes is reported here for the first time.

Dwarf adders of the genus Bitis are popular in the interna- tional pet trade in reptiles, jujam although New proline-rich oligopeptides from the venom of African adders: Insights into the hypotensive effect of the venoms.

The snakes from the Bitis genus are some of jwm most medically important venomous snakes in sub Saharan Africa, however little yorej known about the composition and effects of these snake venom peptides. Togej that the victims with Bitis genus snakes have exacerbate hypotension and cardiovascular disorders, we investigated here the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme modulators on four different species of venoms.

The peptide fractions from Bitis gabonica gabonicaBitis nasicornis, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros and Bitis arietans which showed inhibitory activity on angiotensin-converting enzyme were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis.

Eight proline-rich peptides were synthetized tkrej their potencies were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The MS analysis resulted in over sequences, out of which 32 are new proline-rich oligopeptides, and eight were selected for syntheses. For some peptides, inhibition assays showed inhibitory potentials of cleavage of angiotensin I ten times greater when compared to bradykinin. In vivo tests showed that all peptides decreased mean arterial pressure, followed hyjam tachycardia in 6 out of 8 of the tests.


We describe here some new and already known proline-rich peptides, also known as bradykinin-potentiating peptides. Four synthetic peptides indicated a preferential inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme C-domain.

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In vivo studies show that kem proline-rich oligopeptides are hypotensive molecules. Although proline-rich oligopeptides are known molecules, we present here 32 new sequences that are inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme and consistent with the symptoms of the victims of Bitis spp, who display severe hypotension. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations.

Stridulation behavior huujam been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid Histological study hukam white rhinoceros integument.

In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum integumentary ultrastructure. The epidermis was thickest in the flank 1.

The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Aggregation pheromones for monitoring the coconut rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros in Jerukwangi Village, Jepara, Indonesia.

Scarabaeidae is the most serious pest of coconut plantations in Indonesia. Jerukwangi Village is O. The hkjam aimed to monitor the population and analyze the sex ratio of O.

Hujma pheromones is a chemical compound containing Ethyl 4-methyl octanoate. The pheromone compounds were placed in traps bucketshung 2 meters above the ground.

The traps were observed, and the beetles trapped were counted every week. In 12 weeks of monitoring, hujqm traps captured insects consist of Huajm result indicates the high population of O. Aggregation pheromone huiam useful for attracting females. The advantage of research is it can torek used in integrated pest management IPM packages for monitoring of beetle population, and removal of beetles.

Amputation for a puff adder Bitis arietans envenomation in a child The injury arose from a puff adder bite while walking on the bank of the Nile. The father took four days to transport the The child after the operation with hospital orderlies and father West family photograph. Full Text Available In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros Ceratotherium simum integumentary ultrastructure. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers.

The epidermal-dermal junction was characterized by abundant papillary folds increasing ejm contact between integument layers. Most of the dermal thickness consisted of organized collagen bundles with scattered elastic fibers. Torejj fiber bundles were thickest in the flank Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.

Increasing the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae Ma DOAE variety to control rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros by gamma radiation was found that among 20 varieties got from the fungus irradiated with 20 doses of gamma radiation, MAI irradiated with 1.

The effectiveness of MAI to control 3 in star larvae of rhinoceros beetle was 80 percent mortality within 10 days while the original variety DOAE variety with the dominant characterization of green color spore, 1 centimeter diameter growth on PDA agar within 10 days and full growth on surface of maize seed 1. This variety caused 60 percent mortality to 3 in star larvae of rhinoceros within 7 days. It could conclude that from laboratory experiment, MAI is the most effective and suitable variety to control rhinoceros beetle even though the mortality time was longer than the original variety because the larvae of the insect does not caused the damage to coconut.

The efficiency for nem rhinoceros beetle at field trial by using irradiated MAI comparing to the original variety and control with out fungus by adding each 1,2 kilogram of the MAI and original variety growth on surface of maize seed on each manure pile size 1x1x0. After 7 days of both varieties of Metarhizium application, the number of dead larvae caused by the fungus and the number of healthy larvae in hujzm manure pile was collected and counted.


It was toreh that after continuous survey 4 time 7 day per 1 time the percent mortality of rhinoceros larvae caused by the 2 fungus varieties were as follow: Aggregation pheromone of coconut rhinoceros beetle,Oryctes rhinoceros L. Male coconut rhinoceros beetles,Oryctes rhinoceros L.

Synthesis of these compounds involving conjugate addition of organocuprates to ethyl acrylate is reported. In field trapping experiments, 4S -ethyl 4-methyloctanoate and the racemic mixture were equally attractive and 10 times more effective in attracting beetles than ethyl chrysanthemumate, a previously recommended attractant.

Ethyl 4-methylheptanoate was as attractive as ethyl chrysanthemumate and more attractive than 4-methyloctanoic acid, but further studies are required before it can be iem as an aggregation pheromone.

Compared to ethyl 4-methyloctanoate alone, combinations of the three male-produced compounds did not increase attraction, whereas addition of freshly rotting oil palm fruit bunches to pheromone-baited traps significantly enhanced attraction. With increasing dose, captures ofO. Newly designed vane traps were more effective in capturing beetles than were barrier or pitfall traps. Results of this study indicate that there is potential for using ethyl 4-methyloctanoate in operational programs to controlO.

Scarabaecin, a novel cysteine-containing antifungal peptide from hujaj rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. A novel antifungal peptide, scarabaecin Dawas isolated from the coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros.

The amino acid sequence deduced from scarabaecin cDNA showed no significant similarity to those of reported proteins.

Chemically synthesized scarabaecin indicated antifungal hujaj against phytopathogenic fungi such as Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Botrytis cinerea, but not against phytopathogenic bacteria.

It showed weak activity against Bauberia bassiana, an insect pathogenic fungus, and Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium. Scarabaecin showed chitin binding property and its K d was 1.

A comparison of putative chitin-binding domains among scarabaecin, invertebrate, and plant chitin-binding proteins suggests that scarabaecin is a new member of chitin-binding antimicrobial proteins. Primary structure of an adipokinetic neuropeptide from the rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L Coleoptera: Neuropeptides play an important role in cellular communication in vertebrates.

This is also true for insects in which many physiological, developmental and behavioral processes are affected by neuropeptides produced in neurosecretory cells of the retrocerebral complex. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the primary structure of adipokinetic neuropeptides in nujam rhinoceros beetle, O.

In the present investigation, an adipokinetic neuropeptide from the coconut pest, Oryctes rhinoceros was isolated from corpora cardiaca by HPLC; the chromatographic fractions were tested for adipokinetic activity in the plant bug, Iphita limbata in vivo. Two UV absorbance peaks were found to be significantly active in elevating haemolymph lipid levels. The findings suggest that the distribution of AKH huiam has shown that there exists a taxonomic order or family specificity.

This data can be used as additional information to aid in the construction of phylogenetic trees by means of computer programme and protein parsimony algorithms.

Amputation for a puff adder Bitis arietans envenomation in a child – Full Text Available Diaries spanning three decades have been discovered that tell the story of the life of missionary nurses, doctors and surgeons working at the Lui and Leer Hospitals in South Sudan then known as Southern Sudan. The medical facility at Leer during this period covered a miles radius serving approximately 60, of the Nilotic Western Nuer tribe [1].

It was among these records that the following case description was found. The gorej adder Bitis arietans is one of the commonest African snakes, causing more bites in animals and humans than all other species of snake put together in sub-Saharan regions. It commonly inhabits the banks of the Nile.