Slavery (Romanian: robie) existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the ), Vasile Alecsandri also wrote a short story, Istoria unui Galbân (“History of a gold coin”, ), while Gheorghe . 99; ^ Mihail Kogălniceanu, wikisource:ro:Dezrobirea țiganilor, ștergerea privilegiilor boierești, emanciparea. Originea si istoria tiganilor: Cum au ajuns in Europa. Mihai Mircea, “Cu privire la originea si istoria tiganilor,” Revista de cercetari sociale, nr. 4/ I. Muraru, “Studii constitutionale,” Ed. Actam (Bucuresti, ).

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In Wallachia, Alexander Ypsilantis — banned mixed marriages in his law code, but the children resulting from such marriages were to be born free. In some parts of the country, the nomadic Roma were settled in villages under the supervision of the local police, but across the country, Roma nomadism was not eliminated. The earliest law which freed a category of slaves was in March in Wallachia, which transferred the control of the state slaves owned by the prison authority to the local authorities, leading to their sedentarizing and becoming peasants.

We do not believe that this argument can be supported. Notes 1 References to the situation of the Gypsies in the post-war period can be found in: Together with the construction of a modern neighbourhood with its large population on the site of the old Gypsy neighbourhood and the moving of the Gypsies into blocks of flats, the local Gypsy community, which in some places had been there for several centuries although in most cases it had been created in the inter-war period, to all intents and purposes ceased to exist.

A similar chrysobull was decreed by Alexandru Mavrocordat Firaris inwhich not only banned such marriages, but invalidated any such existing marriage. They would bar-gain over the price of the work at the start of the hot season, when they would install themselves together with their entire family on the boundary of the respective village, where they would work until the delivery of the bricks.

The policy of the antonescu regime with regard to the gypsies. However, the main explanation lies in the demographic behaviour of the Gypsies, which differs from that of the Romanian population, including the rural population, which for a number of decades has followed a modern demographic model.

Slavery in Romania – Wikipedia

Historian Nicolae Iorga associated the Roma people’s arrival with the Mongol invasion of Europe and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, the Romanians taking the Roma from the Mongols as slaves and preserving their status. Untilthe Gypsies were refused this status in Socialist Romania. Kisebbsegi Szemle, no. Their social ascension was of course not due to their ethnic origin, which in any case many denied, but rather because they came from a poor social background.

The authorities controlled the different groups of Gypsies through the intermediaries of their traditional leaders. A category of Gypsy industrial workers has appeared, as well as a category of Gypsy intellectuals. This seasonal activity, in which entire families would sometimes take part, enabled them to earn a living. Inthe Union was disbanded by the Communist authorities together with all other organisations that did not fit in with the totalitarian system.


Djuvara argues that this was because their economic patterns were at a hunter-gatherer stage. The boyars loudly pleaded their case to the authorities of Bukovina and Galiciaarguing that the banning of slavery was a transgression against the autonomy and traditions of the province, that bondage is the appropriate state for the Roma and that it was for their own good.

Some made a career in politics, reaching the higher echelons of the Party apparatus. Despite the good will of many abolitionists, the social integration of the former slaves was carried out only for a part of them, many of the Roma remaining outside the social organization of the Wallachian, Moldavian and later, Romanian society.

Similarly, in villages of rudari that had not completely given up their old occupation, the manufacture of wooden objects played a wholly minor role in the household economy. From a town planning point of view, the destruction of these neighbourhoods was not much of a loss. Nevertheless, after the revolution was quelled by Ottoman and Imperial Russian troops, the slaves returned to their previous status.

Marital relations between Roma people and the majority ethnic Romanian population were rare, due to the difference in status and, as Djuvara notes, to an emerging form of racial prejudice. The adoption of Romanian or Hungarian as native language—in places where the loss of Romanes had not taken place much earlier—took place almost of its own accord.

Slavery in Romania

Systematisation began as tjganilor rule with the removal of insalubrious neighbourhoods located on the edge of towns. In addition to holding an enslaved population of native Roma, the countries were, for a brief interval during the early 18th century, a transit route, through which the Ottoman slave merchants joined the African trade with markets within the Tsardom of Russia. The gypsies during th A small section of the native Roma tiganiloe managed to evade the system either by not having been originally enslaved as a group, or by regrouping runaway slaves.

Among the Gypsies, the level of delinquency was fairly high. In the other communist countries, where isforia much more consistent, long-lasting and coherent policy existed and where much more radical measures were undertaken presupposing substantial financial efforts on the part of the State, as was the case in Hungary and Czechoslovakia, the results were the same. The shacks that until the s characterised the habitat of the Gypsies did not disappear, but did make up a much smaller proportion of their dwellings.

Nevertheless, the administration in the Danubian Principalities did try to change the status of the state Romas, by attempting the sedentarization of the nomads. Gypsies were employed particularly as day or seasonal workers.

Results per book Results per chapter. The disputes with non-slaves and the manslaughter cases were dealt by the state judiciary isotria. Marriage between two slaves was only allowed with the approval of the two owners, usually through a financial agreement which resulted in the selling of one slave to the other owner or through an exchange.


The policy of the antonescu regime with regard to the gy This explains why in a considerable number of villages, a Gypsy was appointed as mayor.

At the same time, on a statistical level of course, the gap between the Gypsies and the rest of the population has increased. This system of allowances enabled many Gypsies to make a living without being forced to gain employment.

In the villages, the Gypsies built houses in the style of the majority population in the last decades of the regime. However, Djuvara, who bases his argument on a number of contemporary sources, also notes that the slaves istlria exceptionally cheap by any standard: The slavery of the Roma in bordering Transylvania was found especially in the fiefs and areas under the influence of Wallachia and Moldavia, these areas keeping their practice of slavery even after they were no longer under Wallachian or Moldavian possession.

Another category was the Aurari or Rudari gold minerswho were slaves of the Prince who panned for gold during the warm season in the mountain rivers of the Carpathians, while staying in the plains during the winter, carving wooden utensils. Anthropologist Sam Beck argues that the origins of Roma slavery can be most easily explained in the practice of taking prisoners of war as slaves, a practice with a long history in the region, and that, initially, free and enslaved Roma coexisted on what became Romanian territory.

Furthermore, when at the end of the s and the beginning of the s the authorities did decide to find a solution to the problematic social situation of the Gypsies and to a certain extent took action in this direction, the policy was not made public.

Gypsies living in large towns tigabilor the main protagonists on the black market that became a large-scale phenomenon in the final years of the Communist regime. It would appear, however, that on the level of their community life, the Gypsies have suffered acutely as a result of the disappearance of their traditional neighbourhoods.

Deportarea romilor în Transnistria

This is another aspect of the civilisation gap between the Gypsies and the majority population. Even at the end of the s and the beginning of the s, when a programme of this nature did exist, the authorities did not deal with the Gypsies in a serious way.

Some of these leaders were even allowed to travel outside the country to international Gypsy iistoria, where they were regarded as the representatives of their ethnic group in Romania.