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For the fiscal year ended December 31, Commission file number Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter. State or idcf jurisdiction idcc incorporation or organization. Address of principal executive offices.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. Do not check if a smaller reporting company. Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this Form K.
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Since our founding inour engineers have designed and developed a wide range of innovations that are used in digital cellular and wireless products and networks, including 2G, 3G, 4G and IEEE related products and networks. We are a leading contributor of intellectual property to the wireless communications industry. Given udcc long history and focus on advanced research and development, InterDigital has one of the most significant patent portfolios in the wireless industry.
As of December 31,InterDigital’s wholly owned subsidiaries held a portfolio of approximately 20, patents and patent applications related to a range of technologies including the fundamental technologies that enable wireless communications. In that portfolio are a number of patents and patent applications that we believe are or may be essential or may become essential to cellular and other wireless standards, including 2G, 3G, 4G and the IEEE suite of standards.
That portfolio has largely been built through internal development, supplemented by joint development projects with other companies as well as select patent acquisitions. Products incorporating our patented inventions include: InterDigital derives revenues primarily from patent licensing and sales, with contributions from technology solutions licensing and sales and engineering services.
Additional information about our revenues, profits and assets, as well as additional financial data, is udcc in the selected financial data in Part II, Item 6, and in the financial statements and accompanying Notes in Part II, Item 8, of this Form K. Our objective is to continue to be a leading designer and developer of technology solutions and intellectual property for the mobile industry and to monetize those solutions and intellectual property through a combination of licensing, sales and other revenue opportunities.
To execute our strategy, we intend to: Develop and source innovative technologies related to wireless. We intend to maintain a leading position in advanced mobile technology and to advance our position in the fields of the Internet of Things IoT and media content delivery by leveraging our expertise in digital cellular, wireless and video technologies to guide internal research and development capabilities and by directing our efforts in partnering with leading inventors and industry players to source new technologies.
Establish and grow our patent-based revenue. We intend to grow our licensing revenue base by adding licensees, expanding into adjacent technology areas that align with our intellectual property position and leveraging the continued growth of the overall mobile technology market. Those licensing efforts can be self-driven or executed in conjunction with licensing partnerships, trusts and other efforts, and may involve the vigorous defense of our intellectual property through litigation and other means.
We also believe idvc the size and growth rate of our patent portfolio enable us to sell patent assets that are not essential to our core licensing programs as a sustainable revenue stream, as well as to execute patent swaps that can strengthen our overall portfolio.
Pursue commercial opportunities for our advanced platforms and idcx. We intend to pursue, through our InterDigital Solutions unit, the commercialization of technology platforms and solutions. As part of our ongoing research and development idccc, InterDigital often builds out entire functioning platforms in various technology areas.
InterDigital Solutions seeks to bring those technologies, as well as other technologies we may develop or acquire, to market through various structures including technology licensing, stand-alone commercial initiatives, joint ventures, and partnerships.
Maintain a collaborative relationship with key industry players and worldwide standards bodies. We intend to continue contributing to the ongoing process of defining mobile standards and other industry-wide efforts and incorporating our inventions into those technology areas. Those efforts, and the knowledge gained through them, underpin internal development efforts and also help guide technology and intellectual property sourcing through partners and other external sources.
Technology Research and Development. jdcc
InterDigital pursues a diversified approach to sourcing the innovations that underpin our business. That approach incorporates internally driven research and development efforts by our InterDigital Labs unit, as well as externally focused efforts by our Innovation Partners unit. Our efforts are guided by our vision of the future of mobile communications – The Living Network SM – which is articulated around the variables of content, context and connectivity, and how the interplay of these elements drives future technology capabilities and needs.
The patents and applications comprising our portfolio relate predominantly to digital wireless radiotelephony technology including, without limitation, 2G, 3G and 4G technologies.
Issued patents expire at differing times ranging from through The company operates six research and development facilities in four countries, including the addition of research and development offices in London in and in Seoul in As an early and ongoing participant in the digital wireless market, InterDigital developed pioneering solutions for the primary cellular air interface technologies in use today, TDMA and CDMA.
In conjunction with our participation in certain standards bodies, we have filed declarations stating that we have patents that we believe are or may be essential or may become essential to cellular and other wireless standards and that, with respect to our essential patents, we are prepared to grant licenses on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms or similar terms consistent with the requirements of the respective standards organizations.
Our capabilities in the development of advanced mobile technologies are based on the efforts of a highly specialized engineering team, leveraging leading-edge equipment and software platforms. Additional information about our development expenses is provided in the results of operations, under the heading “Operating Expenses,” in Part II, Item 7, of this Form K. Our current research efforts are focused on technology solutions to solve the industry’s challenges and unlock new capabilities related to connectivity, content delivery, and contextual data, particularly as they relate to handset and other connected devices, such as tablets and laptops, video content delivery, as well as areas of network infrastructure including spectrum research and wireless backhaul.
We have taken a broad approach to solve these challenges, which includes air interface enhancements, policy-driven bandwidth management, cognitive radio and intelligent and optimized data delivery. We are developing technologies that will enable efficient multimedia content delivery across heterogeneous devices and networks, to enable richer multimedia experience with optimal data usage and radio network efficiency. From a connectivity standpoint, we are creating evolved system architectures that enable operation in small cells and additional frequency bands, improved cell-edge performance as well as device-to-device communications.
These solutions provide interference mitigation across cells, uniform coverage and significantly improved data rates, system capacity and energy efficiency. We are also developing technologies that will optimize use of the current network resources by dynamically icc and aggregating bandwidth across different networks and spectrum bands. Many of these technologies are being developed within the scope of the company’s efforts to define future generations of wireless including 5G, which is expected to comprise a number of these technologies.
In the field of video delivery, we are developing solutions that optimize the delivery of content to a range of devices based on contextual data, as well as helping to define and develop new compression technologies.
In the field of machine-to-machine M2M applications and IoT, iecc are developing technologies to enable seamless interconnection for multiple access types cellular, WLAN, WPAN and M2M service frameworks that can be managed by an operator and leveraged by a diverse set of vertical applications. To supplement our own development efforts, our Innovation Partners unit pursues an external sourcing model based around partnerships with leading inventors and research organizations, as well as the acquisition of technology and patent portfolios that align with InterDigital’s roadmap.
The unit also evaluated and engaged in targeted acquisitions and investments in areas that are complementary to InterDigital Labs’ main research areas. We developed a substantial portfolio of TDMA-based patented inventions. These inventions include or relate to fundamental elements of TDMA-based systems in use around the world.
Some of our TDMA inventions include or relate to: Initializing procedures that enable roaming. We have also developed and patented innovative CDMA technology solutions. Today, we hold a significant worldwide portfolio of Idcc patents and 7102 applications.
Some of our CDMA inventions include or relate to: The use of a common pilot channel to synchronize sub-channels in a multiple access environment. Techniques including multi-channel and multi-code mechanisms.
Highly efficient schemes for controlling the transmission output power of terminal and base station devices, a vital feature in a CDMA system. Joint detection and interference cancellation techniques for reducing interference.
Soft handover enhancement techniques between designated cells. Dicc sub-channel access and coding techniques. Geo-location for calculating the position of terminal users. High-speed packet data delivery in a mobile environment, including enhanced uplink. The cellular industry has ongoing initiatives aimed at technology improvements.
The common goal is to improve the user experience and reduce the cost to operators via increased capacity, reduced cost per bit, increased data idxc, improved cell-edge or coverage solutions and reduced latency. Some of our LTE inventions include or relate to: MIMO technologies for reducing interference and increasing data rates.
Hybrid-ARQ for fast error correction. Discontinuous reception for improved battery life. Control channel structures for efficient signaling. Home Node-B femto cells. Relay communications for improved cell-edge performance. Carrier aggregation for LTE-Advanced.
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Our strong wireless background includes engineering and corporate development activities that focus on solutions that apply to other wireless market segments. We have contributed to many earlier efforts that are complete or in the later phases of standardization such as handover among radio access technologies IEEE We believe that companies making, importing, using or selling products compliant with the standards covered by our patent portfolio, including all manufacturers of mobile handsets, tablets and other devices, require a license under our patents and will require licenses under patents that may issue from our pending patent applications.
We have successfully entered into license agreements with many of the leading mobile communications companies globally, including Samsung Electronics Co. Most of our patent license agreements are structured on a royalty-bearing basis, while others are structured on a paid-up basis or a combination thereof.
Upon entering into a new patent license agreement, the licensee typically agrees to pay consideration for sales made prior to the effective date of the license agreement i. We expect that, for the most part, new license agreements will follow this model. Almost all of our patent license agreements provide for the payment of royalties based on sales of licensed products designed to operate in accordance with particular standards convenience-based licensesas opposed to the payment of royalties if the manufacture, sale or use of the licensed product infringes one of our patents infringement-based licenses.
In most cases, we recognize the revenue from per-unit royalties in the period when we receive royalty reports from licensees. In circumstances where we receive consideration for past patent royalties, we recognize such payments as revenue in the period in which the patent license agreement is signed. Some of these patent license agreements provide for the non-refundable prepayment of royalties that are usually made in exchange for prepayment discounts.
As the licensee reports idfc of covered products, the royalties are calculated and either applied against any prepayment or become payable in cash or other consideration. Additionally, royalties on sales of licensed products under the license agreement become payable or applied against prepayments based on the royalty formula applicable to the particular license agreement.
These formulas include flat dollar rates per unit, a percentage of sales, a percentage of sales with a per-unit cap and other similar measures. The formulas can also vary by other factors, including territory, covered standards, quantity and dates sold.
Some of our iddcc licenses are paid up, requiring no additional payments relating to designated sales under agreed upon conditions. Those conditions can include paid-up licenses for a period of time, for a class of products, for a number of products sold, under certain patents or patent claims, for sales in certain countries 102 a combination thereof.
Licenses have become paid-up based on the payment of fixed amounts or after the payment of royalties for a term. With the exception of amounts allocated to past patent royalties, we recognize revenues related to fixed amounts on a straight-line basis.
Our license agreements typically contain provisions that give us the right to audit our licensees’ books and records to ensure compliance with the licensees’ reporting and payment obligations under those agreements.