In this process, the issues listed below, which are contained in ICAO Doc Manual on Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or near parallel. PfA for parallel approach operations to PANS ATM (ICAO Doc ),. PANS OPS (ICAO ) and the SOIR (ICAO Doc ) forwarded for. The Catalogue is accessible on the ICAO website at Doc AN/ Manual on Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near-Parallel.
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The concept involved adopting a second, strongly displaced landing threshold for the southern runway to mitigate against wake turbulence by flying above the vortices of the leading aircraft.
The largest increase in overall capacity often includes the use of independent approaches to parallel or near-parallel runways. The safety of parallel runway operations in controlled airspace is affected by several factors such as the accuracy and use of the associated radar monitoring system, the effectiveness of the process of controller intervention when an aircraft deviates from the correct Instrument Landing System ILS localiser or Area Navigation Systems course and the precision with which aircraft can and do fly the approach.
It should be noted that when the spacing between iao parallel runways is lower than the specified value determined by wake turbulence considerations, the runways are considered as a single runway with regard to vortex wake separation. Independent operations on closely-spaced parallel runways are significantly safety critical and should be used only after a proper risk assessment has been undertaken.
A potential problem with close parallel runway spacing is the possibility that an aircraft may make an approach to the wrong runway. Two scenarios can be considered:.
The minimum spacing between two aircraft in the event of a deviation is calculated using techniques similar to those used for independent parallel approaches. Because of these constraints, maximum runway capacity may, in some cases, only be achieved by adopting a fully segregated mode of operation, i.
Closely-spaced parallel runways may affect the pilots’ situational awareness or lead to their distraction or confusion. The main objective of implementing simultaneous operations on parallel or near-parallel runways is to increase runway capacity and aerodrome flexibility.
In order to maximise the capacity there are some concepts such as High Approach Landing System HALS that were developed and deployed for a given period of time only to allow aircraft to land simultaneously on closely spaced parallel runways at Frankfurt Airport. Taxiway layout and the position of passenger terminals with reference to the runways may make it necessary for traffic to cross active runways, a situation which may not only lead to delays but also to a decrease of the safety level due to the possibility of runway incursions by either arriving or departing aircrsft.
Other factors such as non-availability of landing aids on one of the parallel runways or restricted runway lengths may preclude the conducting of mixed operations at a particular aerodrome.
Runway Incursion Content source: The advantages to be gained from segregated parallel operations as compared to mixed parallel operations are as follows:. If you wish to contribute or participate in the discussions about articles you are invited to join SKYbrary as a registered user.
Parallel Runway Operation – SKYbrary Aviation Safety
Factors which may have an impact on the maximum capacity or the desirability of operating parallel runways simultaneously are not limited to runway considerations. Retrieved from ” https: In the case of segregated parallel approaches and departures there may be semi-mixed modes of operations.
Parallel Runway Operation need to be carefully managed in such a manner as to minimise the risk of runway ucao or wrong runway use. Theoretical studies and practical examples indicate that maximum aerodrome capacities can be achieved by using parallel runways in a mixed mode of operation.
In ATC terms, the various modes of operation available for the use of parallel or near-parallel instrument runways are distinguished as:. Each situation is considered on a case-by-case basis and is dependent on a number of variable conditions.
No special procedures have been developed as yet for simultaneous operations to near-parallel runways. The following map shows the aerodromes operating parallel runways across the world which are listed on SKYbrary:.