measurements can determine the topography of the ocean floor, and have shown that the This steep embankment is called the continental slope and is grooved by The hypsographic curve shows the amount of Earth’s surface at various. Next, a simple hydrostatic balance between continent and ocean gives average that the ocean floor on each plate is produced and moves away Sea level variations, global sedimentation rates and the hypsographic. Oceans and Atmosphere-Hypsography of the Continents and Ocean Floor: Questions of 5. Get to the point CSIR (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research).

Author: Gorn Groshakar
Country: Colombia
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Sex
Published (Last): 20 August 2014
Pages: 377
PDF File Size: 12.89 Mb
ePub File Size: 6.95 Mb
ISBN: 623-3-91075-380-4
Downloads: 12103
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Dazil

Convergence of oceanic plates. Many sonar techniques have been developed for bathymetry.

There was a problem providing the content you requested

Some continental margins are characterized by subduction zones, whereby oceanic crust is destroyed beneath the edge of a continental plate. The fact that Earth’s surface is comprised mostly of flat plates of continental and oceanic crust, with mountains and deep-sea trenches occurring only along their edges where the plates collide, gives the hypsographic curve its characteristic shape.

For the first time, scientists knew what 70 percent of Earth’s surface really looked like radar, which produces images by bouncing radio waves rather than sound waves off distant objects, cannot be used for bathymetry because water absorbs radio waves.

What percent of the earth’s surface is “deep” ocean and how deep is “deep” ocean considered?

The abyssal plain, which is the deepest, most level part of the ocean, is found where the continental rise ends, at a depth of about 4 kilometers 2. Thurman, Tje, and Elizabeth Burton. The average width of a continental shelf is 70 kilometers 43 miles.


There it ends as the slope moderates to a mere degree or two from horizontal. This area is the flank of the mid-ocean ridge, a long, undersea mountain chain that usually extends down the middle of the ocean.

The hypsography of the ocean floor

The elevation features of the ocean floor—shelves, slopes, rises, plains, ridges, and trenches—are quantitatively summarized by oceanographers, along with the distribution of dry land at different altitudes, in a graph called the hypsographic curve see the figure. In the twentieth century, sounding lines were entirely replaced by sonar systems.

Continental shelf- shore-continental slope. Divergence of of oceanic and continental plates c. Not only was this method time-consuming, it was inaccurate; ship drift or water currents could drag the line off at an angle, which would exaggerate the depth reading.

Neumann, Gerhard, and Willard Pierson. The Hypsographic Curve The elevation features of the ocean floor—shelves, slopes, rises, plains, ridges, and trenches—are quantitatively summarized by oceanographers, along with the distribution of dry land at different altitudes, in a graph called the hypsographic curve see the figure. Guyots are drowned volcanic islands that become submerged due to subsidence of the oceanic lithosphere.

The most popular type of bathymetric maps are ones on which lines of equal depths called isobaths are represented. This gradual zone, which may be several hundred miles wide, is called the continental rise. From this valley, new oceanic crust is constantly being extruded from Earth’s continentss by processes not yet fully understood.

When high-resolution images are desired, an underwater unit may be towed behind a ship, scanning to the left and right aand multiple sonar beams sidescan ocntinents. Beyond the rift valley, the depth sequence described above is observed in reverse: The abyssal plains of the Atlantic appear smooth because its abyssal hills are buried under a thick blanket of continental sediment, but in the Pacific Ocean basin, which is ringed by trenches that trap sediments before they can spread over the ocean floor, tens of thousands of unburied abyssal hills have been observed.


A tornado over Lf with wind speed of and horizontal length scale of. These subduction zones are the deepest places in the ocean, varying from 7 to 11 kilometers 4 miles to 6. Freeman and Company, Elsewhere, however, such neat symmetry is not always found.

Continental Slope and Rise. View Sample Explanation or View Features.

Ocean-Floor Bathymetry

Bathymetric mapping involves the production of ocean and sea maps based upon bathymetric data see historic map. Access detailed explanations illustrated with images and videos to questions. Continental shelf-continental slope-shore d. The abyssal plain is dotted with thousands of small, extinct volcanoes called abyssal hills. The disappearance of oceanic crust into subduction zones is occurring primarily along the western, northern, and eastern edges of the Pacific Ocean.

Convergence of continental plates.

Ocean-Floor Bathymetry – river, sea, depth, oceans, percentage, types, system, effect

This would be the case in crossing the Atlantic Ocean. In the case of the Mid-Atlantic rift valley, one sheet flows east and the other west, each moving at about half an inch per year. It was also difficult to tell when the sounding line had actually touched bottom.