Hermann Gunkel’s commentary on Psalms (Die Psalmen, HKAT) — considered by many to be his magnum opus — was published in But he was unable to . Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction [Hermann Gunkel] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Christian point of view. , English, Book edition: The Psalms: a form-critical introduction / by Hermann Gunkel ; with an introd. by James Muilenburg ; trans. by Thomas M. Horner.

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Documents Flashcards Grammar checker. Rather it is the foundational work with which there can be no certainty in the remainder. It is the firm ground from which everything else must ascend. According to Gunkel, for psalms to be considered as part of the same genre Gattung three conditions had to be met: The latter feature provides the signals of the particular genre. Working with these criteria, Gunkel isolated a number of different genres or types of psalms.

In his earlier work3 he highlighted four primary types of psalms hymns, community laments, individual thanksgiving psalms, and individual lamentswith various subcategories, as well as several mixed forms. In his later work, 4 completed by Joachim Begrich, he identified six major types hymns, enthronement psalms, communal complaints, royal psalms, individual complaints, and individual thanksgiving psalms and a number of smaller genres and mixed types.

I have tended to follow the later classification, with modifications as noted.

An Introduction to the Psalms : The Genres of the Religious Lyric of Israel

Also note that some psalms are found in more than one category. Hymns in General Psalms 8; 19; 29; 33; 65; 67; 68; 96; 98; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; A call to praise, sing, and rejoice to Yahweh in some form. Hermann Gunkel, The Psalms: A Form-Critical Introduction, p. Songs of Zion Psalms 46; 48; 76; 84; 87; These psalms tend to lack a proper introduction. They praise Yahweh by praising Jerusalem, addressing the holy place, and calling down blessings upon it.


They were sung at particular occasions that celebrated Jerusalem’s majesty and future eschatological significance. Psalms of Yahweh’s Enthronement5 Psalms 47; 93; These psalms were given a prophetic, eschatological, reinterpretation in their final stages. Communal Complaint Psalms Psalms 44; 58 ; 60 ; 74; 79; 80; 83; ; Form 1 Calling upon Yahweh by name usually in the vocative 2 Lamenting complaints over the misfortune; almost always political in nature.

Form Laments will typically include the following element, though not necessarily in the same order: While these psalms are given a separate chapter in Gunkel and Begrich, Gunkel clearly saw them as a subcategory of the Hymn, so I have included them here hermznn such. This is the most significant part of the complaint psalm. May be of a general nature or may be quite specific confessional petitions, petitions of innocence, etc.

Sitz im Leben The setting in life is difficult to determine due to the formulaic character of the language in laments. Originally derives from the worship service and then later were used as spiritual songs of the individual.

A Form-Critical Classification of the Psalms According to Hermann

These psalms were occasioned by apparently life-threatening situations rather than everyday life; such situations may include illness, misfortune, paalms from enemies — though one needs to be careful about taking the images too literally.

These psalms have an accentuated assurance of innocence, and even in some cases a qualified self-curse. These psalms are characterized by a painful awareness of having sinned against Yahweh and deserving punishment. These psalms strive for retaliation against enemies. Royal Psalms Psalms 2; 18; 20; 21; hdrmann 72; ; ; ; Sitz im Leben These psalms were performed at some sort of court festivity, where they were performed in the presence of the king and his dignitaries. Thanksgivings hefmann the Individual Psalms 18; 30; 32; 34; Form 1 An expanded Introduction, declaring the intention to thank God.


The psalmist usually recounts: It is thought that the individual, in the presence of the worshiping congregation e. Eventually, these psalms freed themselves from the actual sacrifice. Thanksgivings of the Community6 Psalms These psalms are parallel gunel form to the individual thanksgiving psalms.

Wisdom Psalms Psalms 1; 37; 49; 73; 91; ; ; ; While there are wisdom elements found in psalms of a variety of genres, there are psalms which exhibit a concentration of wisdom themes to be considered a distinct type. As such, these psalms do not exhibit a single formal pattern, but share a number of characteristics, including: Smaller Genres and Mixed Types A.

Pilgrimage Psalms Only one complete example remains, Psalm These psalms were used at the beginning of a heramnn as well as once the pilgrim had reached his or her destination.

Hermann Gunkel – Wikipedia

These psalms are psalm under other literary types e. These psalms are characterized by their antiphonal structure, particularly suited for corporate worship. Miscellaneous Psalms 36; 50; 52; 75; 82; Mixed Psalms Psalms ; 12; 77; 90; 94; ; ; Introduction to the Psalm Introduction to the Psalms.

Psalms For Special Days English.