In amphibians the germ cells arise in the vegetal pole region whereas in mammals the cells arise in the extraembryonic yolk sac mesoderm and then must . The process of Gametogenesis is stimulated by the FSH or Follicle . eggs of shark, bony fish, Reptiles, birds, prototherian, concentrated mainly in vegetal pole . marginal zone, transitional area between animal and vegetal hemispheres. maturation, process of gaining fully differentiated form. maturation promoting factor.

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Condensation of chromosomes occurs during the leptotene phase followed by the zygotene phase. Factors affecting meiotic competence in pig oocytes.

Van der Lende, Bringing up small oocytes to eggs in evgetal and cows. Soon after oocyte activation through sperm entry the PB-2 extrudes Payne et al. To reach the maturity, goat oocytes ooplasm grow from Developmentally competent a immature and b mature goat oocytes recovered through Laparoscopic Ovum Pick-Up LOPU technique from estrus synchronized and superstimulated doe.

Mature oocyte size and opacity in different animals and human Oocyte diameter without ZP ooplasmic diameter was calculated by deducting average ZP thickness from oocyte diameter with ZP. Unlike human, laboratory animals, cattle and sheep, fewer studies have been conducted in gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryo development in goat.

Germ Cells and Fertilization, Austin, C. Cleavage of the zygote occurs by vertical division through the main axis of the oocyte from the animal to vegetal pole animal pole refers to the site of PB extrusion and vegetal pole refers to the site of yolk reserve.


Oogenesis is the development of female sex-cells called ova or eggs in the female gonad or ovary. Development of horse embryos up to twenty-two days after ovulation: Early ionic events in activation of the mammalian eggs. The hatching of goat blastocyst occurs around h 7 days after fertilization Sakkas et al.

Useful Notes on Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis)

The Life of the Egg Before Implantation. However, four ZP proteins with variable roles in sperm-oocyte interaction have been isolated in mammals. The latter author argues that available evidence is in favor of mechanical instead of lytic penetration. Synthetic Events in the Developing Mammalian Egg. In the doe, antrum formation began when the GCs are about six cell layers in thickness and the Zona Pellucida ZP is visible at this stage Ariyaratna and Gametognesis, GVBDspindle formation and chromosome segregation.

The failure of ICSI in some gametogenseis animals may be due to the failure of removal of the perinuclear theca, a cytoskeletal capsule present between the sperm membrane and the nuclear envelope Sutovsky et al. Thus, in goat, where the chromosome number of somatic cells is 60, each sperm and each oocyte has only 30 chromosomes. The spermatozoon interacts with the ZP by the plasma membrane overlying the acrosome. In each vertebrate a pair of testes remains attached to dorsal body wall by a connective tissue called mesorchium.

Spermatogenesis deals with the development of male sex-cells called sperms in the male gonad or testis.

However, it is generally believed that the process involves receptor-ligand interaction between gametogendsis proteins and ZP glycoproteins. The attachment of the sperm head to the ZP inevitably alters the permeability of the sperm plasma membrane, causing a transient change in the concentration of several intracellular ions Tulsiani et al.


A Comparative Overview of Mammalian Fertilization. The sperm head fuses with microvilli on the oolemma Kupker et al.

Gametogenesis – Spermatogenesis – Oogenesis – TeachMePhysiology

The first sign of morphological change when the oocyte begins to grow is turning of the flat GCs to cuboidal which is known as primary follicle. The chronology of embryo development from 2-cell stage to blastocyst hatching in different species of farm animals including goat, rabbit, mouse and human has been presented in Table 3. Phylogeny, ontogeny and embryo transfer. The spermatid is a typical cell containing a nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria, golgi bodies, centriole etc, but the nucleus only contains haploid number of chromosomes.

The acrosomal enzymes react with the extracellular matrix or ZP of oocyte and digest the ZP at the point of spermatozoon contact. The changes that occur during capacitation in the sperm plasma membrane include modification of ion channels, increased adenylate cyclase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMPchanges in surface glycoprotein moieties that lead to changes in lectin binding patterns and also enzymatic modification of surface proteins such as sugar transferases.

They are set aside early in specific locations in the embryo or extraembryonic tissue depending on the organism.

Oogenesis is followed by the formation of protective coverings called egg membranes.