FORNOVO 1495 PDF

The battle of Fornovo (6 July ) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples. Battle of Fornovo Charles VIII, attempting to seize control of southern Italy for use as a platform for war against the Ottoman Turks, lead the most. Nicolle, David. Fornovo France’s Bloody Fighting Retreat. Oxford: Osprey, Santosuosso, Antonio. “Anatomy of Defeat: The Battle of Fornovo in

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Leave a comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Count Niccola Pitigliano continued to urge the squadrons to bring aid and kept shouting that they should gornovo neglect so great and so providential an opportunity for victory: Those who had fled struck fear into the King, and since he could not draw in his troops he halted on 5 July at the edge of the valley and reviewed the strength of all his forces.

Some pointed out that the number of the enemy being fornivo through the valleys of the Apennines was about twenty thousand, others put it at only fifteen thousand, on the ground that a useless group of people-servants, camp-followers, a throng of women-and a great mass of baggage swelled the numbers of the enemy. Thereupon the ranks, their leaders, and the arrangement fornoovo determined. On a more positive side, his expedition did broaden contacts between French and Italian humanistsenergizing French art and letters in the latter Renaissance.

While the battle was at its most delicate point, the Stradioti saw that the French guarding the baggage train were being driven out by the assigned Italian light cavalry, and they immediately left their positions to fall upon the rich baggage to plunder it. fornoov

And so when he saw that he had to fight, he decided to undergo the risk of battle and sent about forty soldiers ahead to reconnoiter. His arrival cheered the wavering spirits of many, and his encouragement strengthened the tottering lines.

Alessandro Beneditti, The Battle of Fornovo () » De Re Militari

Charles organized his army in battle groups. They would not have to wait long, but the Venetian Senate was not unanimous on fighting the French. None of the enemy risked fighting in single combat, but in greater numbers attacked single individuals and straightway returned to the standards.

Some members wanted to attack the rear guard of the French to try to seize the money, while others cautioned that Italy 4195 risking too much in this battle, while for the French it was just one army.

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The following evening, Doge Agostino Barbarigo and the Venetian Senate received a report in which they were told that the Venetian army had not been destroyed, but that the result of the battle was uncertain because they had many casualties and deserters, but they did not know the enemy casualties. In the last line Jacopo Salerno of Verona was struck by a large ball.

It was the foenovo major battle of the Italian Wars.

Battle of Fornovo, 1495

Click here to view animation. Very many wounded were found naked among the corpses, some begging aid, some half-dead. Between these two lines two thousand foot soldiers were distributed. The French, less encumbered and more lightly armed, hastened down the hill in a dense mass to help.

Of the latter about two hundred led by Geronimo Genova, the only ones to sustain the battle in that sector, were lost. Likewise a great deal of rain had made the fields slippery and impassable for the cavalry. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. He came under escort to the commander Francesco Gonzaga and the proveditors to request of them a truce of three days.

In addition to those I have mentioned the following were captured: The French had lost the booty of the Italian expedition. The Venetian proveditors awaited the outcome of the affair near the last ranks, so that if there was any need they might perform the duty of the general.

Fornovo 1495

And so as is wont to happen when a time of crisis draws near, his usual assurance changed to anxiety, his earlier daring to fear, his swollen pride to humility. The League was quickly able to raise a powerful army in the north of Italy.

He put Gian Giacomo Trivulzio in charge of the first, which consisted of three fornlvo horsemen, two hundred light-armed soldiers, and two thousand German foot soldiers equipped with spears, who were surrounded by men carrying small hand-machines and armed with axes and hatchets.

The Venetians indeed fought with greater spirit, the French with greater industry, for a fear far from moderate had invaded their minds and the huge numbers of their enemy terrified them. How to cite this article: In short, all the plunder on the following day was wickedly divided among the Greek allies, booty which was worth two hundred thousand ducats.

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A scout reported that the French were now approaching the camp of the Venetians; almost all the men sprang up eagerly to grasp their arms, and since they were swifter footed light-armed soldiers who were called stratiotes to about the number of six hundred were the first to go and meet the approaching enemy. Saintly men offered their vows continuously at the shrines, and nuns prayed in the churches that Almighty and All Merciful God might defend the Venetian Senate through the mediation of its protector St.

An Italian cavalry attack on Charles’s force 4195 repulsed, and the defeated cavalry was chased back to the ford.

Some of the infantry followed quickly, but the cavalry almost alone completed the battle. The forty fornovp Charles subsequently sent to reconnoiter were quickly routed by the Stradiotimercenaries from Balkans. On hearing this, the King went on 4 July to the highest point of the mountain, and when he saw from it the vast forces of the Venetians, he exclaimed with a deep sigh that he had been deceived.

Battle of Fornovo – Wikipedia

On every side the sky repeatedly flashed with fire and thundered with artillery and was filled with wails and cries. 195 1 May this army was threatening the garrisons that Charles had left in a trail down Italy to guard his communications with France.

Beneditti was a physician working for the Venetian forces and started his diary in Mayfornogo a month later, was an eyewitness to this battle. The Battle of Fornovo in Of course, neither army followed up the battle with any bold action, and thus the battle is remembered only as an indecisive draw.

The infantry, which was arranged between the respective lines of cavalry and in which there were a great many from the Venetian populace, joined in the uncertain struggle.

Alexander also wrote to the Venetians to congratulate them on winning “immortal fame” by their liberation of Italy. 4195

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. In a strategic sense, the French were able to achieve their objective of continuing their retreat to France as a result of their tactical victory over League forces on every front. Among the French forhovo the servants and camp-followers who were killed increased the number of the slain.