An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing. The term. Introns are non-coding sections of an RNA transcript, or the DNA encoding it, which are spliced out, or removed, before the RNA molecule is translated into a. In most eukaryotic genes, coding regions (exons) are interrupted by noncoding regions (introns). During transcription, the entire gene is copied into a pre-mRNA, .

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In some cases, particular intron-binding proteins are involved in splicing, acting in such a way that they assist the intron in folding into the three-dimensional structure that van necessary for self-splicing activity.

Exon – Wikipedia

A quantitative analysis of intron effects on mammalian gene expression. Additionally, a replacement of the second intron with other introns in the beta-globin gene in human led to a reduction of the efficiency of 3′-end formation [ 64 ]. Journal List Genomics Inform v.

Classically, enhancers mediate either direction of expression, up- and down-regulation of genes, and involve both spatial and temporal control of gene expression in a specific cell independent of genomic location [ 52 ]. The term intron also refers to intracistroni. A recent experiment using fluorescence in situ hybridization has investigated how intron-bearing and intronless constructs are distributed differently across the nucleus and cytoplasm and showed that intron-bearing transcripts are preferentially located in the cytoplasm [ 31 ].

Transcription initiation and termination processes are cellular processes that involve introns, as well, which need some sequence elements in introns daj be correctly completed. Analysis of conserved noncoding DNA in Drosophila reveals similar constraints in intergenic and intronic sequences.


Widespread predicted nonsense-mediated mRNA decay of alternatively-spliced transcripts of human normal and disease genes. Some introns are known to enhance the expression of the gene that they are contained in by a process known as intron-mediated enhancement IME. Patterns of intron sequence evolution in Drosophila are dependent upon length and GC content.

For group II intron insertion, the retrohoming of a group II intron into a nuclear gene was proposed to cause recent spliceosomal intron gain.

Intron size, abundance, and distribution within untranslated regions of genes. Not to be confused with axonthe projection lntron a neuronor Exxona brand of fuel sold by ExxonMobil, or hexona viral protein.

Introns: The Functional Benefits of Introns in Genomes

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Splicing as a requirement for biogenesis of functional 16S mRNA of simian virus Transfer RNA introns that depend upon proteins for eksonn occur at a specific location within the anticodon loop of unspliced tRNA precursors, and are removed by a tRNA splicing endonuclease.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Similar to miRNAs, some snoRNAs reside in introns, and they are also regulated by host transcriptional and splicing machineries [ 45 ].

The testing of other proposed mechanisms in vivo, particularly intron gain during DSBR, intron transfer, and intronization, is possible, although these mechanisms must be demonstrated in vivo to solidify them as actual mechanisms of intron gain. However, the results derived from different studies are still controversial so far [ 132122232425 ]. Support Center Support Center.

The only hypothesized mechanism of recent intron gain lacking any direct evidence is that of group II intron insertion, which when demonstrated in vivo, abolishes gene expression.


Abstract The intron has been a big biological mystery since it was first discovered in eson aspects.

Intron – Wikipedia

The intron has been a big biological mystery since it was first discovered in several aspects. In highly expressed yeast genes, introns inhibit R-loop formation and the occurrence of DNA damage. Evidence for the widespread coupling of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in humans. Introns certainly impose a huge energetic burden to the cell, considering that the density of ean i.

This intron-containing mRNA is then reverse transcribed and the resulting intron-containing cDNA may then cause intron gain via complete or partial recombination with its original genomic locus. Positive regulation jntron gene expression The expression enhancing effect of introns was first recognized in the experiment using simian virus 40 constructs with or without introns, showing that their protein fan were significantly diminished without their introns [ 15 ].

A scientist knows that a new gene has been trapped when the reporter gene is expressed.

Enhancer and silencer elements within the first intron mediate the transcriptional regulation of the beta 3 tubulin gene by hydroxyecdysone in Drosophila Kc cells. Molecular biology of the cell.

Subsequently, Buchman and Berg [ 48 ] showed that, in a certain condition, constructs with introns were expressed up to times higher than constructs without introns, suggesting that introns can strongly enhance gene expression.