J. C. CATFORD. LANGUAGE. LANGUAGE. LEARNING. A Linguistic. Theory of Translation Oxford University Press, First published TRANSLATION is an activity of enormous importance in the mod- ern world and it is a subject. A linguistic theory of translation: an essay in applied linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Language Arts & Disciplines – pages. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. John Cunnison Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistic research.
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The Navaho colour terms referred to in 6. TL text 1 God with them! A free translation is always unbounded — equivalences shunt up and down the rank scale, but tend to be at the higher ranks — sometimes between larger units than the sentence. Some lan- oc e. Thus, though the unconditioned probability of the equivalence dans — into is onlythe conditioned probability of this equivalence is very much higher when dans is preceded by certain verbs, e. In phonological and grapho- logical exponence affix morphemes may be expounded linearly e.
This table is to be interpreted thus: There are theort overlaps in collocational range— thus we may have a whole ctaford sheep and we might have fat sheep as well as mutton fat, but on the whole they have different collocational ranges, and this establishes the fact that they belong to different lexical sets and are different lexical items. Throughout this paper we make use of the abbreviations: Ill If you do that, II you will regret it.
A Linguistic Theory Of Translation Oxford Univ. Press ( 1965)
But, on the second occasion, the interpreter translates a-yas by my brother. We will show how this applies in restricted translation in Chapters 8 and 9. We have already given the primary elements of Nominal Group structure in 1.
One notable point, however, is that literal translation, like word-for- word, tends to remain lexically word-for-word, i. To deal with this, we make use of the concept of rank-shift. The child finds this funny and confusing; he reflects on who lives upstairs and downstairs in the catgord, and he wonders how one can come down the stairs without going on foot; and what has water to do with it?
It provides categories, drawn from generalizations based on observation of languages and language-events.
A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics – J. C. Catford – Google Books
In terms of distinctive phonic features the Sindhi system is 1 A fact which is very troublesome for Greek beginners in English, the situation being further complicated, as D. This definition is intentionally wide — not vague, though it may appear so at first sight.
It is possible, however, to set up translation equivalences by considering the features of phonic substance to which the English and Sindhi phonological units are related. There is thus considerable divergence between formal correspondence and textual equi- valence as between English prepositions and Ov relational preverbs.
Here, the lexical item sauna appears to have been transferred bodily into the TL. The contextual meanings of the two Navaho terms given here are also different from anything in English: By placing these in this order on the scale of rank we mean that every sentence consists of one or more than one clause, every clause of one or more than one group, every group of one or more than one word, and every word of one or more than one morpheme.
Here teory actual situational features relatable to WE are the speaker S and at least one other O ; the catdord A is excluded.
Dennis Ward 5 in his article on translation of the Slovo has argued against archaism in the TL text, with the exception of his deliberate selection of host as translation equivalent of the lexical item polk. Translitera- tion is a conventionalized process, unlike translation which is carried out anew, or ad hoc, on each particular occasion. It is clear, however, that this translation is unsatisfactory.
In the Russian text, therefore, there is no translation equivalent of the English indefinite article. Such features are for the English reader, markers of a slightly archaic etat de langue, appropriate to the subject as well as being to some extent a translation equivalent of the SL etat de langue.
We are justified in saying that for English and French prepositions there is a fairly high degree of convergence between formal correspondence and textual equivalence; and this may be taken as a symptom vatford typological similarity.
It is particularly clear in the case longuistic 7 for n that this is graphological translation, since the only thing in common between n and 7 is relation to similar graphic substance. Scots English, and within this, again, still more strictly localized varieties. It is a way, perhaps the most important way, in which human beings interact in social situations.
In the course of the conversation he frequently uses the item a-cho.