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Diagnosis and RUL predictions are also included with projections of the system under different operation conditions. For the case when adding articulatory information, the 14 components from the articulatory vector were added to this vector, resulting in a element vector. S errors by substitutionwhen an incorrect phoneme substitutes a correct one; D errors by omissionwhen a correct phoneme is omitted; and I errors by insertionwhen an extra phoneme is added.

The centroids are located so that they remain as far as possible from each other and every continuous observation point is associated to its nearest discrete centroid.

cadenas de markov ocultas pdf

Said technique is inspired on the functioning of the most important organ intervening in human hearing: The resulting database comprises ten folders: But the Ball fault type yields a better result when degradation is included, reporting a minimum average of 0. Each ms block was applied the following procedure:. Then, an update is performed by estimating new measures for the centroids in each division: As a result, it is found that the hypothesis test is fulfilled; thereby, it is said that it cannot be dismissed that the difference is significant.


This characteristic is encouraging to continue with the study of classification and identification of degradation and the severity levels on this kind of assets.

Also, it is worth highlighting that while the rapid changes of the mean values are attributed to the phonetic content of each phrase, the slow changes are mainly caused by the subject’s articulatory adaptation during the recording session. MFCC have two filter types, linearly distributed for frequencies below ve kHz, and logarithmically distributed for frequencies above 1 kHz [25].

Maekov tuning is unable to make distinctions, sensitivity will be 0 and specificity 1 i. Figure 5 show 3 curves denoting the areas under the ROC curve from the respective basis. The results show a significant increase in the system’s performance by adding articulatory parameters compared to that based only on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients.

During the first stage, the probability values of the phonemes are estimated; and during the second stage, mxrkov estimated values are used to make up the vector of characteristics of the recognition system.

cadenas de markov ocultas pdf – PDF Files

From the training performed as described, it is noticeable ocultaas Tables 1 to 3that variations on the percentage of the data base used for training do not alter significantly the total reliability for degradation identification. However, the constant pressure on improving the reliability of assets remains intact [2]. As per data standardization, a process suggested in [16] was carried out.

B is the function that approximates the frequency values in the Mel scale. An alternative representation to the ways previously described corresponds to the use of information on the movement of articulators instead of using only information of the acoustic signal.

Phoneme Recognition System Using Articulatory-Type Information

Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. The algorithm iterates in two main steps [26]: Given the observation sequence and a model, select the best state sequence that better explain the observations. Loparo, “Estimation of the running speed and bearing defect frequencies of an induction motor from vibration data”. With the purpose of developing efficient maintenance strategies, challenges related to the predictive research have been faced to manage the residual risk of failing equipment [2].


One of the most broadly used ways to evaluate phoneme recognition systems is the phonetic error rate PER [22] [18]. Several speech processing systems use Hidden Markov Chains HMC since they allow for the analysis of a dynamic random process [18, 20, 21]. For the Bearing Data Center database, the data was acquired at 12k samples per second, faults were induced in three different parts of the bearing inner ring, outer ring and rolling mrakov with three levels of severity, cadenzs state of normal operation base signal and at four different velocities, and RPMs.

European Journal of Operational ResearchElsevier, pp. Representation Regarding signal representation, this work uses two types: Introduction Automatic speech recognition caenas been the object of intense research for over four decades, reaching notable results. Improvements in recognition rates calculated are summarized in Table 1.

Whereas the obtained minimum averages are 0. Each row contains the results for a specific type of fault, including reliability and standard deviation. Research supported by Toyota Technical Center.

Afterwards, a Hamming window is applied in order to adjust the frames and integrate the magkov frequency lines.