Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis Drew & Hancock, ; Bactrocera (Bactrocera) invadens Drew et al., ; Bactrocera (Bactrocera) papayae. ISHS International Postharvest Science Conference Postharvest 96 BACTROCERA PAPAYAE (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) INCURSION – CAIRNS, AUSTRALIA. Bactrocera papayae — Overview. Papaya Fruit Fly learn more about names for this taxon Explore what EOL knows about Bactrocera papayae.

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Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive species. Native to Asia, Oriental fruit fly is now found in at least 65 countries, including parts of America and Oceania, and most of continental Africa sub-Saharan co Native to Asia, Oriental fruit fly is now found in at least 65 countries, including parts of America and Oceania, and most of continental Africa sub-Saharan countries.

The potential risk of its introduction to a new area is facilitated by increasing international tourism and trade, and is influenced by changes in climate and land use. The economic impact would result primarily from the loss of the export markets and the costly requirement of quarantine restrictions and eradication measures. Bactrocera dorsalis is a member of the Oriental fruit fly B. This species complex forms a group within the subgenus Bactrocera and the name may therefore be cited as Bactrocera Bactrocera dorsalis.

Native range of true B.

Bactrocera invadens was later described by Drew et al. Bactrocera philippinensis was designated a synonym of B. This resulted in the synonymization of B. The eggs of Bactrocera oleae were described in detail by Margaritis and those of other species are probably very similar.

The chorion is reticulate requires scanning electron microscope examination. The following larval description was taken from White and Elson-Harris Thoracic and abdominal segments: Creeping welts with small, stout spinules, with one posterior row of spinules larger and stouter than remainder.

A8 rounded with prominent intermediate areas and obvious sensilla.

oriental fruit fly – Bactrocera dorsalis

Spiracular hairs just longer than a spiracular slit; dorsal and ventral bundles with broad, flat hairs, branched apically; lateral bundles with similarly shaped hairs.

The inner rows of bactroera stout, slightly curved, sharply pointed becoming larger just below the anal opening, outer rows with smaller spinules. Barrel-shaped with most larval features unrecognisable, the exception being the anterior and posterior spiracles, which are little changed by pupariation. Drew and Hancock distinguish the B. Scutum generally black with lateral vittae present and medial vitta absent; yellow scutellum, except for basal band which is usually very narrow; abdomen with a medial dark stripe on T3-T5; dark laterally but form of marking varies from bactrocra to species.

It is noteworthy that colour of scutum varies in B. Populations from the Indian subcontinent and Africa have extensive pale papagae Leblanc et al. The revision by Drew and Hancock split the original B. The distribution and invasion history of B. Whether or not B.

EPPO Global Database

The distribution of B. An interactive distribution map for B.

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status.

Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Oriental fruit fly has been established since about and quickly became widespread in the Hawaiian Islands Pemberton, By it had spread throughout much of mainland Papua New Guinea Sar et al. This represents the first detection of this known invasive species in Australian territory and it was quickly eradicated.


In Octoberit was detected in the Cairns region of northern Queensland Fay et al. This was probably the result of accidental introduction from Papua New Guinea.

The fly had spread throughout papyaae Cairns-Mareeba-Mossman region and detections were made from Bactfocera to Cardwell before it was eradicated during Hancock et al. An isolated outbreak at Mount Isa in western Queensland was eradicated during Hancock et al.

These have been eradicated whenever establishment occurred. Inthe Ministry of Agriculture in Mauritius established a network of quarantine traps for exotic fruit flies. In Juneone Oriental fruit fly B. The quarantine trap grid was immediately extended in the area surrounding the airport, and fruit in the area was inspected for larval infestations.

The bactrocers were reared from infested fruit found near the airport and it was clear that the oriental fruit fly had established in southern Mauritius. Morphological examination indicated that the flies had originated in southern India. An eradication programme for B. The introduction was probably accidental, as the first flies were detected in the airport neighbourhood. Inan unknown Bactrocera papayaee was found in Kenya. Taxonomic expertise showed that it could not be a native species of Africa, but that it proved to be a member of the B.

Identical specimens were collected earlier during a survey in Sri Lanka in and initially classified as aberrant forms of B. It was decided that both populations belonged to pqpayae same, hitherto undescribed species: After its discovery in Kenya, it was recorded in bacrocera number of countries in eastern, central and western Africa in a relatively pappayae time Mwatawala et al.

Recently, the species has also been reported from southern Africa Meyer et al. The exact invasion pathway into Africa is unknown. From toan intensive sampling programme was conducted in Kenya Copeland et al.

During that period, close to fruit samples comprising approximatelypieces of fruit belonging to taxa and plant families, were collected from coastal and western Kenya, as well as from the Central Highlands. Some trapping, including the use of methyl eugenol, was also carried out as a parallel study from to IM White, UK [address available from CABI], personal communication, It was only in March that the first specimens were collected from the coastal region Lux et al. None of these yielded any specimens of B.

The first specimens in that part of the African mainland were detected in June Drew et al. The presence of this species in those eastern or western African countries before the beginning of the twenty-first century is, therefore, very unlikely. Unfortunately, no similar studies were conducted at that time in other parts of the African continent where the fly is currently found. The fact that the first specimens were reported from the East African coast appears to indicate that the port of entry could have been an East African coastal locality, although there is no proof of this.

The major risk is from the import of fruit containing larvae, either as part of cargo, or through the smuggling of fruit in airline passenger baggage or mail. For example, in New Zealand, Baker and Cowley recorded interceptions of fruit flies per year in cargo and per year in passenger baggage. Individuals who successfully smuggle fruit are likely to discard it when they discover that it is rotten. It is a serious pest of a wide range of fruit crops throughout its native range and wherever is has invaded.


Due to the confusion between B. Taking China as an example area where the pest populations are definitely the true B. Other recorded commercial and wild hosts are taken primarily from Allwood et. Records from Africa as hosts of synonymous B. Following oviposition there may be some necrosis around bactrocega puncture mark ‘sting’.

This is followed bacrrocera decomposition of the fruit. The eggs of B. These hatch within a day although this can be delayed up to 20 days in cool conditions and the larvae feed for another days, depending on the season.

The adults occur throughout the year and begin mating after approximately days, and may live for months, depending on temperature up to 12 months papayxe cool conditions Christenson and Foote, There are differences among fruit fly species and further studies are required to determine dispersal distances for individual species. Mortality due to vertebrate fruit consumption can be very high pa;ayae can puparial mortality in the soil, either due to predation or environmental mortality see White and Elson-Harris for brief review.

To date there are only a few records of partial biological control success for any Bactrocera or Dacus spp. A number of parasitoids were also released in Guam against B. Due to difficulties in verifying the identifications of both parasitoids and in some cases the fruit fly hosts, no attempt has been made to catalogue all natural enemy records; see ClausenWhite and Elson-HarrisStibick and the website on parasitoids of fruit-infesting Tephritidae http: Van Mele et al.

Using microsatellite markers, Aketarawong et al. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western-orientated migration route from China to the west.

Adult flight and the transport paayae infected fruit are the major means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfested areas. Fletcher b provides dispersal data for only 11 of species of Bactroceramany of the case studies lack the necessary numerical data, and the study did not discern between active flight and passive wind-assisted pappayae. For further information on trapping Bactrocera species to monitor movement, see Weldon et al. Economic Impact Top of page B.

As a result of its widespread distribution, pest status, invasive ability and potential impact on market papsyae, B. In Japan, eradication from the Ryukyu Islands has cost more than million euros Kiritani, In Hawaii, annual losses in major fruit crops pa;ayae by B. Due to the competition for food, oriental fruit flies would displace other less aggressive fruit fly species.

Species with type K-demographic strategy traits, such as species of the genus Bactrocerawould be adapted for competition in saturated papsyae. Chemical control would harm native insects and species of conservation significance. Human health and tourism would be affected if plantations treated with insecticides are close to habitat and touristic resorts.

Asian Papaya Fruit Fly

Fruits locally grown or samples of fruit imports should be inspected for puncture marks and any associated necrosis. Suspect fruits should be cut open and checked for larvae. Larval identification is difficult, so if time allows, mature larvae should be transferred to saw dust or similar dry medium to allow pupariation.

Upon emergence, adult flies ppapayae be fed with sugar and water for several days to allow hardening and full colour to develop, before they can be identified.