In his Incoherence of the Philosophers, al-Ghazālī attacks Avicenna’s theories about the eternity of the universe and insists on the possibility of. The Incoherence of the Philosophers, 2nd Edition (Brigham Young University – Islamic Translation Series) [Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali, Michael E. Al-Ghazali was a highly influential 11th century philosopher, theologian, and Sunni mystic. His most important work, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, had a.

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These judgments, however, are ultimately fallacious and cannot be the basis of jurisprudence fiqh. About Contact News Giving to the Press. The book is organized in 20 chapters, in each of which Al-Ghazali endeavors to refute an Avicennian doctrine.

These doctrines are limited to three: Academic Tools How to cite this entry. While humans are under the impression that they have a free will, their actions are in reality compelled by causes that exist within them as well as outside Griffel— Ibn Tufail cites al-Ghazali as an influence on his novel, especially his views on Sufism, but was critical of his views against Avicennism.

If a body continues to have a certain attribute from one moment to the next, then God creates two identical accidents inhering in that body in each of the two subsequent moments. God’s eternal and unchanging knowledge already contains all events that will happen in creation. These and other explanations given in the Second Approach are only examples of how the prophetical miracles may be the result of natural causes that are not fully understood by humans. Like in the connection between a father and his son, where the father is not the only efficient cause for the son’s existence, so there may be in every causal connection efficient causes involved other than the most obvious or the most proximate one.


The Doctrines of the Philosophers may have been a text that was initially unconnected to the Incoherence or that was generated after the composition of the latter. None of the created accidents in the second moment has any causal relation to the ones in the earlier moment. In This Article 9. This also applies to the atoms of the air if there happen to be some wind.

Averroes Ibn Rushd was a very important 12th century philosopher, best known for his commentary on Aristotle. Don’t have an account? Observation can only conclude that the incohsrence and its effect occur concomitantly:. Only the atoms of incoyerence extended bodies can be substances.

The Incoherence of the Philosophers, 2nd Edition

None of the accidents, however, can subsist from one moment waqt to the next. Falsafa was a movement where Christians, Muslims, and even pagan authors participated.

These causes have been made easy for him, who has been predestined in eternity to earn redemption, so that through their chaining-together the causes will lead him to paradise. With regard to the ethical value of our actions we have a tendency to confuse moral value with benefit. Every event in creation follows a pre-determined plan that is eternally present in God’s knowledge.

Even an Avicennan philosopher holds that God creates the cause concomitant to its effect, and does so by means of secondary causality. pholosophers


Sufi masters stand in between these two. Sign in via your Institution. The Incoherence of the Philosophers. God’s will is not in any way determined by God’s nature or essence.


On refuting their statement that God Odense University Press, pp. This philosiphers was preceded by a summary of Muslim philosophical thought titled: After the 12th century it would also include Jewish authors.

The Incoherence of the Philosophers : Abu Hamid Muhammed Al-Ghazali :

While it is conceivable and therefore possible that God would break his habit or intervene in the assigned function of phillsophers secondary causes, He informs us in His revelation that He will not do so. If this sentence is true whenever uttered, it is necessarily true. Education, literature, religion, and politics should help realizing this potential.

He actually lived in Andalusia, in modern day Spain, and was influential among European philosophers in fact Thomas Aquinas lists him as one of the great philosophers, calling him simply “The Commentator”. God may create this effect directly or by way of secondary causality. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

Instead Averroes went on to publish many more important commentaries on Avicenna and hgazali, and was largely responsible for a renewed interest in Greek thinkers especially Aristotle in Europe. Avicenna Institute of Middle East Studies, pp.