microcontroller tutorial on internal architecture, pin diagram with explanation, program and data memory organization and applications. Microcontroller Architecture (Block Diagram). Page Contents [hide]. 1 Block Diagram of Microcontroller. CPU; Interrupts. The Intel microcontroller is one of the most popular general purpose 5 Oscillator Circuits; 6 Internal Architecture; 7 Data and Program Memory.

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All operations in a microcontroller are synchronized by the help of an oscillator clock. The oscillator clock generates the clock pulses by which all internal operations are synchronized. For this purpose a quartz crystal and capacitors are employed.

8051 Microcontroller Architecture (Block Diagram)

The crystal run at specified maximum and minimum frequencies typically at 1 MHz to 16 MHz. It is 8 bit unit. It archltecture arithmetic operation as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, increment and decrement.

It manipulates 8 bit and 16 bit data. It calculates address of jump locations in relative branch instruction.


It performs compare, rotate and compliment operations. It consists of Boolean processor which performs bit, set, test, clear and compliment. It is 8 bit register. Its address is E0H and it is bit and byte accessible. Therefore it is called accumulator register.

It is used to store 8 bit data and to hold one of operand of ALU units during arithmetical and logical operations. Most of the instructions are carried out on accumulator data.

Architecture of Microcontroller. Block Diagram and Construction of ~ Wiki For You

It is most versatile of 2 CPU registers. It is special 8 bit math register. It is bit and byte accessible. It is used as general purpose register to store 8 bit data. Its address is D0H and It is bit and byte accessible.

It has 4 conditional flags or math flags which sets or resets according to condition of result. It has 3 control flags, by setting or resetting bit required operation or function can be achieved. The format of flag microcontrolled is as shown below:. Internal RAM has memory byte. See hardware for further internal RAM design. Internal RAM is organized into three distinct areas: Data memory and program code memory both are in different physical memory but both have the same addresses.


PC addresses program codes from h to 0FFFh.

Microcontrollers – 8051 Architecture

Program addresses higher than 0FFFh that exceed the internal ROM capacity will cause architecture to fetch codes bytes from external program memory. It is an online portal that gives an enhanced way of learning and guidance in various fields archirecture engineering which include robotics, electronics, communication,computer science, embedded systems and its real life applications.

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